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July 23, 2008
In a recent post Raffael Marty points out the shortcomings of a “classic” SIM solution including high cost in part due to a clumsy, expensive tuning process.
More importantly, he points out that SIM’s were designed for network-based attacks and these are on the wane, replaced by host-based attacks.
At Prism, we’ve long argued that a host-based system is more appropriate and effective. This is further borne out by the appearance of polymorphic strains such as Nugache that now dominate Threatscape 2008.
However is “IT Search” the complete answer? Not quite. As a matter of fact, any such “silver bullet” has never worked out. Fact is, users (especially in mid-tier) are driven by security concerns, so proactive correlation is useful (in moderation), compliance remains a major driver and event reduction with active alerting is absolutely essential for the overworked admin. That said “IT Search” is a useful and powerful tool in the arsenal of the modern, knowledgeable Security Warrior.
A “Complete SIM” solution is more appropriate for the enterprise. Such a solution blends the “classic” approach which is based on log consolidation and multi-event correlation from host and network devices PLUS a white/greylist scanner PLUS the Log Search function. Long term storage and flexible reporting/forensic tools round out the ideal feature set. Such a solution has better potential to satisfy the different user profiles. These include Auditors, Managers and Security Staff, many of who are less comfortable with query construction.
One dimensional approaches such as “IT Search” or “Network Behavior Anomaly Detection” or “Network Packet Correlation” while undeniably useful are in themselves limited.
Complete SIM, IT Search included, that’s the ticket.
July 15, 2008
Fear, boredom and the pursuit of compliance When it comes right down to it, we try to comply with regulations and policies because we are afraid of the penalties. Penalties such as corporate fines and jail time may be for the executive club, but everyone is affected when the U.S. Federal Trade Commission starts directly overseeing your security audits and risk assessment programs for 20 years. Just ask the IT folks at TJX Cos Inc. Then there are the hits to the top line as customers get shy about using their credit cards with you, and the press has fun raking you through the mud.
July 02, 2008
I have been thinking a bit on scalability lately – and I thought it might be an interesting exercise to examine a couple of the obvious places in a SIEM solution where scalability problems can be exposed. In a previous post I talked about scalability and EPS. The fact is there are multiple areas in a SIEM solution where the system may not scale and anyone thinking of a SIEM procurement should be thinking of scalability as a multi-dimensional beast.
First, all the logs you care about need to be dependably collected. Collection is where many vendors build EPS benchmarks – but generally the number of events per second is based on a small normalized packet. Event size varies widely depending on source so understand your typical log size, and calculate accordingly. The general mitigation strategies for collection are faster collection hardware (collection is usually a CPU intensive task), distributed collection architecture, and log filtering.
One thing to think off — log generation is often quite “bursty” in nature. You will, for instance, get a slew of logs generated on Monday mornings when staff arrive to work and start logging onto system resources. You should evaluate what happens if the system gets overloaded – do the events get lost, does the system crash?
As a mitigation strategy, Event filtering is sometimes pooh-poohed , however the reality is that 90% of traffic generated by most devices consists of completely useless (from a security perspective) status information. Volume varies widely depending on audit settings as well. A company generating 600,000 events per day on a windows network can easily generate 10-fold as much by increasing their audit settings slightly. . If you need the audit levels high, filtering is the easiest way to ease pressure on the entire down-stream log system.
Collection is a multi-step process also. Simply receiving an event is too simplistic a view. Resources are expended running policy and rules against the event stream. The more processing, the more system resources consumed. The data must be committed to the event store at some point so it needs to get written to disk. It is highly advisable to look at these as 3 separate activities and validate that the solution can handle your volume successfully.
A note on log storage for those who are considering buying an appliance with a fixed amount of onboard storage – be sure it is enough, and be sure to check out how easy it is to move off, retrieve and process records that have been moved to offline storage media. If your event volume eats up your disk you will likely be doing a lot of the moving off, moving back on activity. Also, some of the compliance standards like PCI require that logs must be stored online a certain amount of time. Here at Prism we solved that problem by allowing events to be stored anywhere on the file system, but most appliances do not afford you that luxury.
Now let’s flip our attention over to the analytics and reporting activities. This is yet another important aspect of scalability that is often ignored. If a system can process 10 million events per minute but takes 10 hours to run a simple query you probably are going to have upset users and a non-viable solution. And what happens to the collection throughput above when a bunch of people are running reports? Often a single user running ad-hoc reports is just fine, put a couple on and you are in trouble.
A remediation strategy here is to look for a solution that can offload the reporting and analytics to another machine so as not to impact the aggregation, correlation and storage steps. If you don’t have that capability absolutely press the vendor for performance metrics if reports and collection are done on the same hardware.
– Steve Lafferty
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