Dan Villasenor describes two classes of cyber threat confronting critical infrastructure. Some, like the power grid, are viewed by everyone as critical, and the number of people who might credibly target them is correspondingly smaller. Others, like the internal networks in the Pentagon, are viewed as a target by a much larger number of people. Providing a high level of protection to those systems is extremely challenging, but feasible. Securing them completely is not.
While I would agree that fewer people are interested/able to hack the power grid, it reminds me of the “insider threat” problem that enterprises face. When an empowered insider who has legitimate access goes rogue, the threat can be very hard to locate and the damage can be incredibly high. Most defense techniques for insider threat depend on monitoring and behavior anomaly detection. Adding to the problem is that systems like the power grid are harder to upgrade and harden. The basic methods to restrict access and enforce authentication and activity monitoring would be applicable. No doubt, this was all true for the Natanz processing plant in Iran and it still got hacked by Stuxnet. That system was apparently infected by a USB device carried in by an external contractor, so it would seem that restricting access and activity monitoring may have helped detect it sooner.
In the second class of threat, exemplified by the internal networks at the Pentagon, one assumes that all classic protection methods are enforced. Situational awareness in such cases becomes important. A local administrator who relies entirely on some central IT team to patrol, detect and inform him in time is expecting too much. It is said that God helps those who help themselves.
Villasenor also says: “There is one number that matters most in cybersecurity. No, it’s not the amount of money you’ve spent beefing up your information technology systems. And no, it’s not the number of PowerPoint slides needed to describe the sophisticated security measures protecting those systems, or the length of the encryption keys used to encode the data they hold. It’s really much simpler than that. The most important number in cybersecurity is how many people are mad at you.”
Perhaps we should also consider those interested in cybercrime? The malware industrial complex is booming and the average price for renting botnets to launch DDoS is plummeting.