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February 28, 2008
In October 2007 Gartner published a paper titled “Clients Should Prepare a ‘Recession Budget’ for 2008″. It suggested that IT organizations should be prepared to respond if a recession forces budget constraints in 2008. Its still early in 2008 but the FED appears to agree and has acted strongly by dropping key interest rates fast and hard.
Will this crimp your ability to secure funding for security initiatives? Vendor FUD tactics have been a bellwether but fear factor funding is waning for various reasons.These include
* crying wolf
* the perceived small impact of breaches (as opposed to the dire predictions)
* the absence of a widespread, debilitating (9/11 style) malware attack
* the realization that most regulations (eg HIPAA) have weak enforcement
As an InfoSec professional, how should you react?
For one thing, understand what drives your business and align with it as opposed to retreating into techno-speak. Accept that the company you work for is not in the business of being compliant or secure. Learn to have a business conversation about Infosec with business people. These are people that care about terms such as ROI, profit, shareholdervalue, labor, assets, expenses and so on. Recognize that their vision of regulatory compliance is driven mainly by the bottom line. In a recession year, these are more important than ever before.
For another thing, expect a cut in IT costs (it is after all most often viewed as a “cost-center”). This means staff, budgets and projects may be lost.
So how does a SIEM vendor respond? In a business-like way of course. By pointing out that one major reason for deploying such solutions is to “do more with less”, to automate the mundane thereby increasing productivity, by retaining company critical knowledge in policy so that you are less vulnerable to a RIF, by avoiding downtime which hurts the bottom line.
And as Gabriel Garcia Marquez observed , maybe it is possible to have Love in the Time of Cholera.
February 15, 2008
In the beginning, there was the Internet.
And it was good (especially for businesses).
It allowed processes to become web enabled.
It enabled efficiencies in both customer facing and supplier facing chains.
Then came the security attacks.
(Toto, I’ve got a feeling we’re not in Kansas any more).
And they were bad (especially for businesses).
So we firewalled.
And we patched.
And we implemented AV and NIDS.
Are we done then?
According to a leading analyst firm, an estimated 70% of security breaches are committed from inside a networks perimeter. This in turn is responsible for more than 95% of intrusions that result in significant financial losses. As a reaction, nearly every industry is now subject to compliance regulations that can only be fully addressed by applying host based security methods.
Security Information and Event Management systems (SIEM) can be of immense value here.
An effective SIEM solution centralizes event log information from various hosts and applies correlation rules to highlight (and ideally thwart) intrusions. In the instance of the “insider” threat, exception reports and review of privileged user activity is a critical activity.
If your IT Security efforts are totally focused on the perimeter and the internal network, you are likely to be missing a large and increasingly critical “brick in the wall”.
-Posted by Ananth
February 07, 2008
Interesting article by Russell Olsen on Windows Change Management on a Budget
He says: “An effective Windows change management process can be the difference between life and death in any organization. Windows managers who understand that are worth their weight in gold…knowing what changed and when it changed makes a big difference especially when something goes wrong. If this is so clear, why do so many of us struggle to implement or maintain an adequate change control process?”
Olsen correctly diagnoses the problem as one of discipline and commitment. Like exercising regularly, its hard….but there is overwhelming evidence of the benefits.
The EventTracker SIM Edition makes it a little easier by automatically taking system (file and registry) snapshots of Windows machines at periodic intervals for comparison either over time or against a golden baseline.
Given the gap between outbreak and vaccine for malware and attacks, as well as the potential for innocuous human error when dealing with complex machinery, the audit function makes it all worthwhile. The CSI 2007 survey shows the annual loss from such incidents to be $350,000.
Avoiding such losses (and regular exercise) will make you worth your weight in gold.
February 02, 2008
Understanding where SIM ends and log management begins In my travels, I tend to run into two types of security practitioners. The first I’ll call the “sailor.” These folks are basically adrift in the lake in a boat with many holes. They’ve got a little cup and they work hard every day trying to make sure the water doesn’t overcome the little ship and sink their craft. The others I’ll call the “builders,” and these folks have gotten past the sailor phase, gotten their ship to port and are trying to build a life in their new surroundings. Thus, they are trying to lay the foundation for a strong home that can withstand whatever the elements have to offer.
January 18, 2008
Selection criteria for pragmatic Log Management As we wrap up our 6-month tour of Pragmatic Log Management, let’s focus on what are some of the important buying criteria that you should consider when looking at log management offerings. Ultimately, a lot of the vendors in the space have done a good job of making all the products sound the same. So really deciphering what differentiates one product versus another is an art form.
January 17, 2008
Well this is starting to turn into a bit of a bun fight, which was not my intent as I was merely attempting to clarify some incorrect claims in the Splunk post. Well, now Anton has weighed in with his perspective:
“I think this debate is mostly about two approaches to logs: collect and parse some logs (typical SIEM approach) vs collect and index all logs (like, ahem, “IT search”).”
Yes, he is right in a sense. It is a great concise statement, but the statement needs to be looked at as there are some nuances here that need to be understood.
Just a bit of level-set before going to work on the meat of the statement.
Most SIEM solutions today have a real-time component, (typically a correlation engine), and some kind of analytics capability. Depending on the vendor some do one or the other better (and of course we all package and price them all differently).
Most of the “older” vendors started out as correlation vendors targeting F2000 enabling real-time threat detection in the SOC. The analytics piece was a bit of a secondary requirement, and secure, long term storage not so much as all. The Gartner guys called these vendors SEM or Security Event Management providers which is instructive – event to me implies a fairly short-term context. Since 2000, the analytics and reporting capability has become increasingly important as compliance has become the big driver. Many of the newer vendors in the SIEM market focused on solving the compliance use-case and these solutions typically featured secure and long term storage, compliance packs, good reporting etc. These new vendors were sometimes referred to as SIM or Security Information Management. These vendors fit a nice gap left in the capabilities of the correlation vendors. Some of the newer vendors like Loglogic made a nice business focusing on selling log collection solutions to large enterprise – typically as an augmentation to an existing SIM. Some of these newer vendors like Prism , focused on mid tier and provided lower-cost, easy to deploy solutions that did both compliance as well as provided real-time capabilities to companies that did not that did have the money or the people to afford the enterprise correlation guys. These companies had a compliance requirement and wanted to get some security improvements as well.
But really all of us, SIM/SEM, enterprise, mid-tier, Splunk were/are collecting the same darn logs – we were just doing slightly different things with them. So of course the correlation guys have released log aggregators (like Arcsight Logger), and the Log Management vendors have added or always had real-time capability. And at the end of the day we ended up getting lumped into the SIEM bucket, and here we are.
For anyone with a SIEM requirement… You should understand what your business requirements are and then look long and hard at the vendor’s capability – preferably by getting them in house to do an evaluation in your own environment. Buying according to which one claims to do the most events per second or supports the most devices, or even the one has the most mindshare in the market is really short sighted. Nothing beats using the solution in action for a few weeks, and this is a classic “the devil is in the details…”
So, back to Anton’s statement (finally!). When Anton refers to “collect and parse some logs” that is the typical simplification of the real-time security use case – you are looking for patterns of behavior and only certain logs are important because you are looking for attack patterns in specific event types.
The “collect and index all the logs” is the typical compliance use case. The indexing is simply the method of storing for efficient retrieval during analysis – again a typical analytics requirement.
Another side note. The importance of collecting all the logs is a risk assessment that the end user should do. Many people tend to collect “all” the logs because they don’t know what is important and it is deemed the easiest and safest approach. The biggest beneficiaries of that approach are the SIEM appliance vendors as they get to sell another proprietary box when the event volume goes through the roof, and of course those individuals that hold stock in EMC. Despite compression, a lot of logs is still a lot of logs!
Increasingly, customers I talk to are making a conscious decision to not collect or retain all the logs as there is overhead and a security risk in storing logs as they consider them sensitive data. Quite frankly you should look for a vendor that allows you to collect all the data, but also provides you with some fairly robust filtering capability in case you don’t want or need to. This is a topic for another day, however.
So when Anton claims that you need to do both – if you want to do real-time analysis as well as forensics and compliance -then yes, I agree, but when he claims the “collect and parse” is the typical SIEM approach then that is an overgeneralization, which really was the purpose of my post to begin with. I tend not to favor them as they simply misinform the reader.
– Steve Lafferty
January 15, 2008
I posted a commentary a while ago on a post by Raffy, who discussed the differences between IT Search (or Splunk, as they are the only folks I know who are trying to make IT Search a distinct product category) and SIEM. Raffy posted a clarification in response to my commentary. What I was pointing out in my original post was that all vendors, SIEM or Splunk, are loading the same standard formats – and what needed to be maintained was, in fact, not the basic loader, but the knowledge (the prioritization, the reports, alerts etc) of what to do with all that data. And the knowledge is a core part of the value that SIEM solutions provide. On that we seem to agree. And as Raffy points out, the Splunk guys are busily beavering away producing knowledge as well. Although be careful — you may wake up one morning and find that you have turned into a SIEM solution!
Sadly the concept of the bad “parser” or loader continues to creep in – Splunk does not need it which is good. SIEM systems do, which is bad.
I am reasonably familiar with quite a few of the offerings out there for doing SIEM/log management, and quite frankly, outside of perhaps Arcsight (I am giving Raffy the benefit of the doubt here as he used to work at Arcsight, so he would know better than I), I can’t think of a vendor that writes proprietary connectors or parsers to simply load raw data. We (EventTracker) certainly don’t. From an engineering standpoint, when there are standard formats like Windows EVT, Syslog and SNMP it would be pretty silly to create something else. Why would you? You write them only when there is a proprietary API or data format like Checkpoint where you absolutely have to. No difference here. I don’t see how this parser argument is in any way, shape or form indicative of a core difference.
I am waiting on Raffy’s promised follow-on post with some anticipation – he states that he will explain the many other differences between IT Search and SIEM, although he prefaced some of it with the Splunk is Google-like and Google is God ergo…
Google was/is a gamechanging application, and there are a number of things that made them unique – easy to use, fast, and the ability to return valuable information. But what made Google a gazillion dollar corporation is not the Natural Language Search – I mean, that is nice but simple “and” “or” “not” is really not a breakthrough in the grand scheme of things. Now the speed of the Google search, that is pretty impressive – but that is due to enormous server farms so that is mechanical. Most of the other early internet search vendors had both these capabilities. My early personal favorite was AltaVista, but I switched a long time ago to Google.
Why? What absolutely blew my socks off and continues to do so to this day about Google is their ability to figure out which of the 10 millions entries for my arbitrary search string are the ones I care about, and providing them, or some of them, to me in the first hundred entries. They find the needle in the proverbial haystack. Now that is spectacular (and highly proprietary) and the ranking algorithm is a closely guarded secret I hear. Someone once told me that lot of it is done around ranking from the millions of people doing similar searches – it is the sheer quantity of search users on the internet. The more searches they conduct the better they become. I can believe that. Google works because of the quantity of data and because the community is so large – and they have figured out a way to put the two together.
I wonder how an approach like that would work however, when you have a few admins searching a few dozen times a week. Not sure how that will translate, but I am looking forward to finding out!
January 14, 2008
Mid-size organizations continue to be tossed on the horns of the Security/Compliance dilemma. Is it reasonable to consider regulatory compliance a natural benefit of a security focused approach?
Consider why regulatory standards came into being in the first place. Some like PCI-DSS, FISMA and DCID/6 are largely driven by security concerns and the potential for loss of high value data. Others like Sarbanes-Oxley seek to establish responsibility for changes and are an incentive to blunt the insider threat. Vendor provided Best Practices have come about because of concerns about “attack surface” and “vulnerability”. Clearly security issues.
While large organizations can establish dedicated “compliance teams”, the high cost of such an approach precludes it as an option for mid tier organizations. If you could only have one team and effort and had to choose, its a no-brainer. Security wins. Accordingly, such organizations naturally consider that compliance efforts are folded into the security teams and budgets.
While this is a reasonable approach, recognize that some compliance regulations are more auditor and governance related and a strict security view is a misfit. An adaptation, is to transition the ownership of tools and their use from the security to the operational team.
The classic approach for mid-size organizations to the dilemma — start as a security focused initiative, transition to the operations team.
January 10, 2008
Did you know? PCI-DSS forbids storage of CVV
A recent Ecommerce Checkout Report stated that “55% of the Top 100 retailers require shoppers to give a CVV2, CID, or CVC number during the checkout process.” That’s great for anti-fraud and customer verification purposes, but it also creates a high level of risk around inappropriate information storage.
To clarify, the CVV (Card Verification Value) is actually a part of the of the magnetic track data in the card itself. CVV2/CVC2/CID information is the 3 or 4 digit code on the back of the signature strip of a credit or debit card (or on the front of American Express cards).
The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) clearly states* that there are three pieces of data that may not be stored after authorization is complete (regardless of whether you are handling card-present or card-not-present transactions):
January 03, 2008
Came across an interesting blog entry by Raffy at Splunk. As a marketing guy I am jealous as they are generating a lot of buzz about “IT Search”. Splunk has led a lot of people that are knowledgeable to wonder how this is something different than what all the log management vendors have been providing.
Still, while Raffy touched on what is one of the real differences between IT Search and Log Management, he left a few of the salient points out in the discussion of a “connector” and how a connector puts you at the mercy of the vendor to produce the connector, and what happens when the log data format changes?
Let’s step back — at the most basic level in log management (or IT Search for that matter) you have to do 2 fundamental things, you have to help people 1) collect logs from a mess of different sources, and 2) help them do interesting things with them. The “do interesting things” includes the usual stuff like correlation, reporting, analytics, secure storage etc.
You can debate fiercely the relative robustness of collection architectures – and there are a number of differences if you are evaluating vendors you should look at. For the sake of this discussion however most any log management system worthy of its salt will have a collection mechanism for all the basic methods – if you handle (in no particular order) ODBC, Syslog, read the Windows event format, maybe SNMP, throw in a file reader for custom applications, well you have the collection pretty much covered..
The reality is, as Raffy points out, there are a few totally proprietary access methods to get logs like Checkpoint. It is far easier for a system or application vendor to write one of the standard methods. So getting access to the raw logs in some way, shape or form is straightforward.
So here is where the real difference between IT search and Log Management begins.
Raffy mentions a small change in the syslog format causing the connector to break. Well syslog is a standard so if it would not break any standard syslog receiver, what it actually meant is that the syslog message has not changed but the content had.
Log Management vendors provide “knowledge” about the logs beyond simple collection.
Let’s make an analogy – IT Search is like the NSA collecting all of the radio transmissions in all of the languages in the entire world. Pretty useful. However, if you want to make sense of the Russian ones you hire your Russian expert, Swahili, your Swahili expert and so on. You get the picture.
Logs are like languages — the fact of the matter is the only thing that is the same about logs is that the content is all different. If you happen to be an uber-log weenie and you understand the format of 20 different logs, simple IT Search is really powerful. If you are only concerned about a single log format like Windows (although Windows by itself is pretty darn arcane), IT Search can be a powerful tool. If you are like the rest of us whose entire lives are not spent understanding multiple log formats, or get really rusty because many of us often don’t get exposed to certain formats all the time, well, it gets a little harder. What Log Management vendors do is to help you ( as the user) out with the knowledge – rules that categorize important event logs from unimportant ones, alerts, reports that are configured to look for key words in the different log streams. How this is done is different from vendor to vendor – some normalize, i.e. translate logs into a standard canonical format, others don’t. And this knowledge is what can conceivably get out of date.
In IT Search, there is no possibility for anything to get out of date mainly because there is no knowledge, only the ability to search the log in its native format. Finally, if a Log Management vendor is storing the original log and you can search on it, your Log Management application gives you all the capability of IT Search.
Seems to me IT Search is much ado about nothing…
The rational approach to pretty much any IT project is the same…define the requirements, solutions, do a pilot project, implement/refine and operationalize.
Often you win or lose early at requirements gathering time.
So what should you keep in mind while defining requirements for a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) project?
Look at it in two ways:
Well, for ourselves, we see a clear increase in attacks from the outside. These are increasingly sophisticated (which is expected I guess since it’s an arms race) and disturbingly indiscriminate. Attacks seem to be launched merely because we exist on the Internet and have connectivity and disconnecting from the Internet is not an option.
We see attacks that we recognize immediately (100 login failures between 2-3 AM). We see attacks that are not so obvious (http traffic from a server that should not have any). And we see the almost unrecognizable zero-day attacks. These appear to work their way through our defenses and manifest as subtle configuration changes.
Of the expert prognosticators, we (like many others) find that the PCI-DSS standard is a good middle ground between loosely defined guidelines (HIPAA anyone?) and vendor “Best Practices”.
The interesting thing is that PCI-DSS requirements seem to match what we see. Section 10 speaks to weaponry that can detect (and ideally remediate) the attacks and Section 11.5 speaks to the ability to detect configuration changes.
Its all SIEM, in the end.
So what are the requirements for SIEM?
As the saying goes — well begun is half done. Get your requirements correct and improve your odds of success.
December 12, 2007
Buying a Pragmatic Log Management Solution Over the past 4 months, we’ve discussed many of the reasons that log management is critical. To quickly review, log management can help you react faster from an operational aspect – so you can pinpoint an incident and remediate any issues well ahead of a significant loss. Secondly, log management helps in the event of an incident in terms of having rock-solid evidence to investigate a breach and hopefully bring the perpetrator to justice.
November 11, 2007
Welcome to Log Talk, the Prism Microsystems blog that provides active commentary and insight on all things related to Log Management and Analysis. Postings on this blog are intended to provide a mix of actionable tips and knowledge to help you leverage your log data as well as provide advice on compliance and security implementations.
November 10, 2007
Log Management and Compliance In past articles, I’ve covered how log management helps with operations and incident response, all in a distinctly “Pragmatic” way. This month we are going to address what I consider to be the 3rd leg of the stool – compliance. Security professionals have a love/hate relationship with compliance.
October 15, 2007
Log Management and Incident Response I’m going to let you in on a little secret. It’s a tough message to get, but part of being Pragmatic is not deluding yourself about what you can and can’t do. The cold harsh reality of today’s information security environment is that you will be compromised. I don’t know whether it will be tomorrow, next Tuesday, or some other time in the future -but it will happen. There are just too many legitimate attack vectors, too many restrictions on what we can and can’t do, and too many limitations on budget and resources to ever be “truly secure.”
September 08, 2007
Log Management and Pragmatic Operations Last month, I introduced the concept of the Pragmatic CSO methodology, a 12-step program to help security professionals overcome their addiction to throwing new products at every new attack vector and security problem. Additionally, the process helps security professionals build a value proposition, interface with senior management more effectively, and run their security operation as a business. As a high level construct, the 12 steps are helpful, but ultimately security professionals need to do something, and that’s what we are going to discuss this month.
August 17, 2007
Looking at Log Management Pragmatically As the first article in a 6-part series on the specifics of log management, I want to introduce the concept of the Pragmatic CSO methodology and go into how/why the idea of log management is important to achieving the goals of the Chief Security Officer. This piece will lay the foundation for the journey we will take together over the next 6 months.
June 17, 2007
Collect Vista Events Microsoft has made some considerable changes to event management in Windows Vista. One major change is the way you can now centrally collect events from a variety of systems. This article is the fifth in a series that demystifies the Vista Event Log. Windows Vista includes an updated implementation of Microsoft’s remote management infrastructure: Windows Remote Management (WinRM). The Vista Event Log uses WinRM along with the Windows Event Collector service as the engines for collecting events from remote machines and sending them to a central event collector system.
May 05, 2007
Automate Vista Events Microsoft has made some considerable changes to event management in Windows Vista. One major change is the way you can link events to automated tasks. This article is the fourth in a series that demystifies the Vista Event Log. When you manage events, you often wish you could generate automatic actions when specific events occur. For example, it would be nice if you could automatically delete temporary files and send a notification to desktop technicians when PC disk drives get too full. In another scenario, it would be nice if you could receive automatic
April 16, 2007
Explore the Vista Task Scheduler Microsoft has made some considerable changes to event management in Windows Vista. One related change is the way the Vista Task Scheduler has been enhanced. These enhancements allow you to link events to automated tasks. This article is the third in a series that demystifies the Vista Event Log.
March 10, 2007
Explore the Vista Event Log Microsoft has made some considerable changes in the Windows Vista Event Log. It sports a new interface and a significant number of new event categories making much more useful than ever before. This article is the second in a series that demystifies the Vista Event Log
February 20, 2007
Industry News Logging data extracts puts some agencies in a bind SPECIAL REPORT: Case study no. 3 – Mandate forces changes in who accesses information OMB gives agencies 45 days to begin logging all computer-readable data extracts, and after 90 days, verify if the data has been erased or still is needed. Very few agencies—if any—have met this most challenging mandate of the four, industry and federal experts said.
January 12, 2007
Manage Change in Windows Vista Microsoft has made some considerable changes in the Windows Vista Event Log. How do those changes affect system auditing and how will they change the way you monitor systems? This article is the first in a series that demystifies the Vista Event Log.
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