Why a Co-Managed SIEM?


In simpler times, security technology approaches were clearly defined and primarily based on prevention with things like firewalls, anti-virus, web, and email gateways. There were relatively few available technology segments and a relatively clear distinction between buying security technology purchases and outsourcing engagements.

Idea to retire: Do more with less


Ideas to Retire is a TechTank series of blog posts that identify outdated practices in public sector IT management and suggest new ideas for improved outcomes. Dr. John Leslie King is W.W. Bishop Professor in the School of Information at the University of Michigan and contributed a blog hammering the idea of “do more with less” calling it a “well-intentioned but ultimately ridiculous suggestion.”

Dirty truths your SIEM vendor won’t tell you


Analytics is an essential component of a modern SIEM solution. The ability to crunch large volumes of log and security data in order to extract meaningful insight can lead to improvements in security posture. Vendors love to tell you all about features and how their particular product is so much better than the competition.

Research points to SIEM-as-a-Service


SC Magazine released the results of a research survey focused on the rising acceptance of SIEM-as-a-Service for the small and medium sized enterprise. The survey, conducted in April 2016, found that SMEs and companies with $1 billion or more in revenue or 5,000-plus employees faced similar challenges:

2015 Cyber Attack Trends — 2016 Implications


The range of threats included trojans, worms, trojan downloaders and droppers, exploits and bots (backdoor trojans), among others. When untargeted (more common), the goal was profit via theft. When targeted, they were often driven by ideology.

Your SIEM relationship status: It’s complicated


On Facebook, when two parties are sort-of-kind-of together but also sort-of, well, not, their relationship status reads, “It’s complicated.” Oftentimes, Party A really wants to like Party B, but Party B keeps doing and saying dumb stuff that prevents Party A from making a commitment.

Top 5 SIEM complaints


Here’s our list of the Top 5 SIEM complaints:1) We bought a security information and event management (SIEM) system, but it’s too complicated and time-consuming, so we’re:

The Cost of False IT Security Alarms


Think about the burglar alarm systems that are common in residential neighborhoods. In the eye of the passive observer, an alarm system makes a lot of sense. They watch your home while you’re asleep or away, and call the police or fire department if anything happens. So for a small monthly fee you feel secure. Unfortunately, there are a few things that the alarm companies don’t tell you.

SIEM: Sprint or Marathon?


Winning a marathon requires dedication and preparation. Over long periods of time. A sprint requires intense energy but for a short period of time. While some tasks in IT Security are closer to a sprint (e.g., configuring a firewall), many, like deploying and using a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solution, are closer to a marathon.

Stuff the turkey, not the SIEM


Did you know that SIEM and Log Management are different?

The latter (log management) is all about collecting logs first and worrying about why you need them second (if at all). The objective is “let’s collect it all and have it indexed for possible review. Why? Because we can.”

The former (SIEM) is about specific security use cases. SIEM is a use-case driven technology. Use cases are implementation specific, unlike antivirus or firewalls.
Treating SIEM like Log Management, is a lot like a turducken.

Don’t want that bloated feeling like Aunt Mildred explains here? Then don’t stuff your SIEM with logs absent a use case.

Need help doing this effectively? A co-managed SIEM may be your best bet.

Effective cyber security by empowering people


You have, no doubt, heard that cyber security is everyone’s job. So then, as the prime defender of your network, what specifically are you doing to empower people so they can all act as sentries? After all, security cannot be automated as much as you’d like. Human adversaries will always be smarter than automated tools and will leverage human ingenuity to skirt around your protections.

But, marketing departments in overdrive are busy selling the notion of “magic” boxes that can envelope you in a protective shell against Voldemort and his minions. But isn’t that really just fantasy? The reality is that you can’t replace well-trained security professionals exercising judgment with computers.

So what does an effective security buyer do?

Answer: Empower the people by giving them tools that multiply their impact and productivity, instead of trying to replace them.

When we were designing EventTracker 8, an oft repeated observation from users was the shortage of senior analysts. If they existed at all in the organization, they were busy with higher level tasks such as policy creation, architecture updates and sometimes critical incident response. The last task on their plates was the bread-and-butter of log review and threat monitoring. Such tasks are often the purview of junior analysts (if they exist). In response, many of the features of EventTracker 8 are designed specifically to enable junior administrators to make effective contributions to cyber security.

Still feeling overwhelmed by the daily tasks that need doing, consoles that need watching, alerts that need triaging? Don’t fret – that is precisely what our SIEM Simplified service (SIEMaas) is designed to provide – as much, or as little help as you need. Become empowered, be effective.

Can you defeat a casual attacker?


The news is rife with stories on “advanced” and “persistent” attacks, in the same way as exotic health problems like Ebola. The reality is that you are much more likely to come down with the common cold than Ebola. Thus, it makes more sense to pay close attention to what the Center for Disease Control has to say about it than to stockpile Ebola serum.

In similar vein, how good is your organization in fighting basic, commodity attacks?

It is true that the scary monsters called 0-day, advanced/persistent attacks and state sponsored superhackers are real. But before worrying about these, how are you set up for traditional intrusion attempts that use (5+) year old tools, tactics and exploits? After all, the vast majority of successful attacks are low tech and old school.

Want to rapidly improve your security maturity? Consider SIEM Simplified, our surprisingly affordable service that can protect you from 90% of the attacks for 10% of the do-it-yourself cost.

Can you predict attacks?


The “kill chain” is a military concept related to the structure of an attack. In the InfoSec area, this concept is a way of modeling intrusions on a computer network.

Threats occur in up to seven stages. Not all threats need to use every stage, and the actions available at each stage can vary, giving an almost unlimited diversity to attack sets.

  • Reconnaisance
  • Weaponization
  • Delivery
  • Exploitation
  • Installation
  • Command and Control
  • Actions on Objective

Of course, some of the steps can happen outside the defended network, and in those cases, it may not be possible or practical to identify or counter. However, the most common variety of attack is unstructured in nature and originates from external sources. These use scripts or commonly available cracking tools that are widely available. Such attacks are identified by many techniques including:

Evidence of such activities is a pre-cursor to an attack. If defenders observe the activities from external sources, then it is important to review what the targets are. Often times, these can be uncovered by a penetration test. Repeated attempts against specific targets are a clue.

A defense-in-depth strategy gives defenders multiple clues about such activities. These include IDS systems that detect attack signatures, logs showing the activities and vulnerability scans that identify weaknesses.

To be sure, defending requires carefully orchestrated expertise. Feeling overwhelmed? Take a look at our SIEM Simplified offering where we can do the heavy lifting.

The Attack on your infrastructure: a play in three parts


To defend against an attacker, you must know him and his methods. The typical attack launched on an IT infrastructure can be thought of in three stages.

Part 1: Establish a beachhead

The villain lures the unsuspecting victim to install malware. This can be done in a myriad of ways: by sending an attachment from an apparently trustworthy source, causing a drive by infection through a website hosting malware, or via a USB drive. Attackers target the weakest link, the less guarded desktop or a test system. Frontal assaults against heavily fortified and carefully watched servers are not practical.

Once installed, the malware usually copies itself to multiple spots to deter eradication and it can possibly “phone home” for further instructions. Malware usually lurks in the background, trying to obtain passwords or system lists to further enable Part 2.

Part 2: Move laterally

As a means to deter removal, malware will move laterally, copying itself to other machines/locations. This movement is also often from peripheral to more central systems (e.g., from workstations to file shares).

Part 3: Exfiltrate secrets

Having patiently gathered up (usually zip or rar) secrets (intellectual property, passwords, credit card info, PII, etc.), the malware (or attacker)now sends the data outside the network back to the attacker.
How do you defend yourself against this? A SIEM solution can help, or a managed SIEM solution if you are short on expertise.

Does sharing Threat Intel work?


In the next couple months, Congress will likely pass CISA, the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act. The purpose is to “codify mechanisms for enabling cybersecurity information sharing between private and government entities, as well as among private entities, to better protect information systems and more effectively respond to cybersecurity incidents.”

Can it help? It’s interesting to note two totally opposing views.

Arguing that it will help is Richard Bejtlich of Brookings. His analogy is Threat intelligence, is in some ways like a set of qualified sales leads provided to two companies. The first has a motivated sales team, polished customer acquisition and onboarding processes, authority to deliver goods and services and quality customer support. The second business has a small sales team, or perhaps no formal sales team. Their processes are broken, and they lack authority to deliver any goods or services, which in this second case isn’t especially valuable. Now, consider what happens when each business receives a bundle of qualified sales leads. Which business will make the most effective use of their list of profitable, interested buyers? The answer is obvious, and there are parallels to the information security world.

Arguing that it won’t help at all is Robert Graham, the creator of BlackICE Guard. His argument is “CISA does not work. Private industry already has exactly the information sharing the bill proposes, and it doesn’t prevent cyber-attacks as CISA claims. On the other side, because of the false-positive problem, CISA does far more to invade privacy than even privacy advocates realize, doing a form of mass surveillance.”

In our view, Threat Intel is a new tool. It’s usefulness depends on the artisan wielding the tool. A poorly skilled user would get less value.

Want experts on your team but don’t know where to start? Try our managed service SIEM Simplified. Start quick and leverage your data!

Death by a Thousand cuts


You may recall that back in 2012, then Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta warned of “a cyber Pearl Harbor; an attack that would cause physical destruction and the loss of life.”

This hasn’t quite come to pass has it? Is it dumb luck? Or are we just waiting for it to happen?

In his annual testimony about the intelligence community’s assessment of “global threats,” Director of National Intelligence James Clapper sounded a more nuanced and less hyperbolic tone. “Rather than a ‘cyber Armageddon’ scenario that debilitates the entire U.S. infrastructure, we envision something different,” he said, “We foresee an ongoing series of low-to-moderate level cyber attacks from a variety of sources over time, which will impose cumulative costs on U.S. economic competitiveness and national security.”

The reality is that the U.S. is being bombarded by cyber attacks of a smaller scale every day—and those campaigns are taking a toll.

Now the DNI also went on to say “Although cyber operators can infiltrate or disrupt targeted [unclassified] networks, most can no longer assume that their activities will remain undetected, nor can they assume that if detected, they will be able to conceal their identities. Governmental and private sector security professionals have made significant advances in detecting and attributing cyber intrusions.”

Alan Paller of the SANS Institute says “Those words translate directly to a simpler statement: ‘The weapons and other systems we operate today cannot be protected from cyber attack.’ Instead, as a nation, we have to put in place the people and support systems who can find the intruders and excise them fast.”

So then what capabilities do you have in this area given that the attacks are continuous and ongoing against your infrastructure?

Want to do something about it quickly and effectively? Consider SIEM Simplified our service offering that can take the heavy lift required to implement such monitoring programs off your hands.

SIEM is Sunlight


Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) refers to technology that provides real-time analysis of security alerts generated by network hardware and applications. SIEM works by gathering, analyzing and presenting information from a variety of sources of such information across the enterprise network including network and security devices; identity and access management applications; vulnerability management and policy compliance tools; operating system, database and application logs; and external threat data.

All compliance frameworks including PCI-DSS, HIPAA, FISMA, NERC etc call for the implementation and regular usage of SIEM technology. The absence of regular usage is noted as a major factor in post-mortem analysis of IT security related incidents.

Why is this the case? It’s because SIEM, when implemented properly gathers security data from all the nooks and crannies of the enterprise network. When this information is collated and presented well, an analyst is able to see what is happening, what happened and what is different.

It’s akin to letting in the sunlight to all corners and hidden places. You can see better, much better.

You can’t fix what you can’t see and don’t know. Knowledge of the goings-on in the various parts of the network, in real-time when possible, is the first step towards building a meaningful security defense.

EventTracker and Poodle


Summary:
• All systems and applications utilizing the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) 3.0 with cipher-block chaining (CBC) mode ciphers may be vulnerable. However, the POODLE (Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption) attack demonstrates this vulnerability using web browsers and web servers, which is one of the most likely exploitation scenarios.
• EventTracker v7.x is implemented above IIS on the Windows platform and there MAY be vulnerable to POODLE depending on the configuration of IIS..
• ETIDS and ETVAS which are offered as options of the SIEM Simplified service, are based on CentOS v6.5 which uses Apache and may also be vulnerable, depending on the configuration of Apache.

1. Poodle Scan can be used to test if your server is vulnerable
• Below are the links relevant to this vulnerability:

http://nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2014-3566
https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA14-290A
http://www.dotnetnoob.com/2013/10/hardening-windows-server-20082012-and.html
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/187498

• If you are a subscriber to SIEM Simplified service, the EventTracker Control Center has already initiated action to patch this vulnerability on your behalf. Please contact ecc@eventtracker.com with any questions.
• If you maintain EventTracker yourself, this document explains how you can update your installation to remove the vulnerability against SSL 3.0

Details:
The SSL 3.0 vulnerability stems from the way blocks of data are encrypted under a specific type of encryption algorithm within the SSL protocol. The POODLE attack takes advantage of the protocol version negotiation feature built into SSL/TLS to force the use of SSL 3.0 and then leverages this new vulnerability to decrypt select content within the SSL session. The decryption is done byte by byte and will generate a large number of connections between the client and server.

While SSL 3.0 is an old encryption standard and has generally been replaced by Transport Layer Security (TLS) (which is not vulnerable in this way), most SSL/TLS implementations remain backwards compatible with SSL 3.0 to interoperate with legacy systems in the interest of a smooth user experience. Even if a client and server both support a version of TLS the SSL/TLS protocol suite allows for protocol version negotiation (being referred to as the “downgrade dance” in other reporting). The POODLE attack leverages the fact that when a secure connection attempt fails, servers will fall back to older protocols such as SSL 3.0. An attacker who can trigger a connection failure can then force the use of SSL 3.0 and attempt the new attack.

Solution:
• If you have installed EventTracker on Microsoft Windows Server and are maintaining it yourself, please download the Disable Weak Cyphers file to the server running EventTracker. Extract and save DisableWeakCiphers.bat; run this file as Administrator. This file executes the following commands:

REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 2.0\Server” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 2.0\Client” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Server” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Client” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\DES 56/56” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\RC2 40/128” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\RC2 56/128” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\RC2 128/128” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\RC4 40/128” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\RC4 56/128” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f
REG.EXE ADD “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Ciphers\RC4 64/128” /v Enabled /t REG_DWORD /d 00000000 /f

Spray & Pray or 80/20


If you spend any time at all looking at log data from any server that is accessible to the Internet, you will be shocked at the brazen attempts to knock the castle over. They being within minutes of the server being available. They most commonly include port scans, login attempts using default username/password, web server attacks described by OWASP.

How can this possibly be? Given the sheer number of machines that are visible on the Internet? Don’t these guys have anything better to do?

The answer is automation and scripted attacks, also known as spray and pray. The bad guys are capitalists too (regardless of country of origin!) and need to maximize their effort, computing capacity and network bandwidth usage. Accordingly, they use automation to “knock on all available doors in a wealthy neighborhood” as efficiently and regularly as possible. Why pick on servers in developed countries? Because that’s where the payoff is likely to be higher. Its Risk v. Reward all the way.

The automated (first) wave of these attacks is to identify vulnerable machines and establish presence. Following waves may be staffed depending on the the location and identity and thus the potential value to be obtained by a greater investment of (scarce) expertise by the attacker.

Such attacks can be deterred quite simply by using secure (non-default) configuration, system patching and basic security defenses such as firewall and anti-virus. This explains the repeated exhortations of security pundits on “best practice” and also the rationale behind compliance standards and auditors trying to enforce basic minimum safeguards.

The 80/20 rule applies to attackers just as it does to defenders. Attackers are trying to cover 80% of the ground at 20% of the cost so as to at-least identify soft high value targets and at most steal from them. Defenders are trying to deter 80% of the attackers at 20% of cost by using basic best practices.

Guidance such as SANS Critical Controls or lessons from Verizon’s Annual Data Breach studies can help you prioritize your actions. Attackers depend on the fact that the majority of users do not follow basic security hygiene, don’t collect logs which would expose the attackers actions and certainly never actually look at the logs.

Defeating a “spray and pray” attacks requires basic tooling and discipline. The easy way to so this? We call it SIEM Simplified. Drop us a shout, it beats being a victim.

Practical ways to analyze login and pre-authentication failures


Nikunj Shah, team lead of EventTracker SIEM Simplified team provides some practical tips on analyzing login and pre-authentication failures:

1) Learn and know how to identify login events and their descriptions. A great resource to find event IDs is here: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc787567(v=ws.10).aspx.

2) Identify and look into the event description. To analyze events efficiently and effectively you must analyze the event description. Within the login failure description, paying attention to the details like: failure reason, user name, logon type, workstation name and source network address are critical to your investigation and analysis. By identifying the description and knowing what to pay attention to, you will easily eliminate the noise.

When using a system like EventTracker, the display of the required fields used to showcase eliminates the noise and show you the immediate error results. EventTracker will provide a summary based on the total number of events for each failure type and user name to demonstrate the automation of your systems’ critical information.

Using IDS will help your enterprise run more efficiently and effectively with the analysis of traditional reports for the hundreds of events that happen every day. Doing this without the help of a management and a monitoring tool is nearly impossible.

Please reference here for detailed charts.

Simplify SIEM with Services


To support security, compliance and operational requirements, specific and fast answers to the 4 W questions (Who, What, When, Where) are very desirable. These requirements drive the need to Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solutions that provide detailed and one-pain-of-glass visibility into this data, which is constantly generated within your information ecosystem. This visibility and the attendant effectiveness are made possibly by centralizing the collection, analysis and storage of log and other security data from sources throughout the enterprise network.

To obtain value from your SIEM solution, it must be watered and fed. This is an eternal commitment, whether your team chooses to do-it yourself or get someone to do it for you. This new white paper from EventTracker examines the pros and cons of using a specialist external service provider.

“Think about this for a second: a lot more people will engage professional services to help them RUN, not just DEPLOY, a SIEM. However, this is not the same as managed services, as those organization will continue to own their SIEM tools.” –Anton Chuvakin, Gartner Analyst

Top 5 bad assumptions about SIEM


The cliché goes “When you assume, you make an ass out of u and me.” When implementing a SIEM solution, these five assumptions have the potential to get us in trouble. They stand in the way or organization and personal success and thus are best avoided.

5. Security by obscurity or my network is too unimportant to be attacked
Small businesses tend to be more innovative and cost-conscious. Is there such a thing as too small for hackers to care? In this blog post we outlined why this is almost never the case. As the Verizon Data Breach shows year in and year out, companies with 11-100 employees from 36 countries had the maximum number of breaches.

4. I’ve got to do it myself to get it right
Charles De Gaulle on humility “The graveyards are full of indispensable men”. Everyone tries to demonstrate multifaceted skill but its neither effective nor efficient. Corporations do it all the time. Tom Friedman explains it in “The World is Flat.”

3. Compliance = Security
This is only true if your auditor is your only threat actor. We tend to fear the known more than the unknown so it is often the case that we fear the (known) auditor more than we fear the (unknown) attacker. Among the myriad lessons from the Target breach, perhaps the most important is that “Compliance” does NOT equal Security.

2. All I have to do it plug it in, the rest happens by magic
Marketing departments of every security vendor would have you believe this of their magic appliance or software. When has this ever been true? Self-propelling lawn mower anyone?

1. It’s all about buying the most expen$ive technology
Kivas Fajo in “The Most Toys” the 70th episode of Star Trek TNG believed this. You could negotiate a 90% discount on a $200K solution and then park it as shelfware, what did you get? Wasted $20K is what. It’s always about using what you have.

Bad assumptions = bad decisions.
Always true.